A Critical Appraisal of the Conceptualization of Public Park and Recreation Marketing

By Edouard Novatorov


The objectives of the study were (a) to identify the reasons and concerns of those public administrators and marketing scholars who do not accept the usefulness of marketing in the public sector; (b) to deconstruct, comprehend, interpret, and critically appraise the current conceptualization of public sector marketing from the viewpoint of negativists identified in step (a); and (c) to reconstruct, redefine, reinterpret, and reoperationalize the current controversial conceptualization of public sector marketing into a new conceptualization in the context of park and recreation services. The critical theory approach to the study primary used non-empirical procedures data collection and analytic procedures which included investigative research, negative case analysis, and theoretical triangulation. These procedures were supplemented with empirical data collected from in-depth interviews with five scholars and with three parks and recreation managers. Results of the non-empirical procedures revealed the biased selective nature of the current conceptualization of public park and recreation marketing and the existence of alternative conceptualizations which have been ignored. The existing and alternative models were discussed with scholars and park and recreation managers. Support was found for the alternative models. From these data an alternative conceptualization of public park and recreation marketing was developed and named the concept of administered marketing. Implications for park and recreation managers are discussed. Directions for future research into the administratively managed park and recreation marketing concept are suggested.



Evolution of the Problem

Statement of the Problem

Scope of the Study and Its Underlying Assumptions

Importance of the Study

Definition of Terms

Organization of the Dissertation


The Literature Review     

The Emergence of Broadening Marketing Proposition

Conceptualization of Generic Marketing Concept

Limitations of Conceptualizations

The Emergence of Marketing in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors

Conceptualizations of Public Sector Marketing

Limitations of Conceptualizations

The Emergence of Marketing in Public Recreation Agencies

Conceptualization of Public Recreation Marketing

Limitations of Conceptualizations




Logico-Positivist/Empiricist Paradigm


Critical Theory

Pluralist Paradigm

Choice of Research Orientation

Selection of the Critical Theory Orientation

An Overview of the Implementation of Critical Theory in This Study

Description of Analytic and Data Collection Techniques

Non-Empirical Procedures

Empirical Procedures


Results and Analysis of the Non-Emprical Procedures      

Results of the Investigative Research

The Social Exchange School of Marketing

Major Assumptions of the Social Exchange School of Marketing

Results of Negative Case Analysis

A Closed-System Model of Formal Organizations

Public Interest and “Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon”

Redistribution and Reciprocity Arrangements

The Theoretical Triangulation of Assumptions

The Exchange Conceptualization of Marketing

The Redistribution Conceptualization of Marketing

The Reciprocity Conceptualization of Marketing

Discussion of the Non-Empirical Results



Input from Experts

Development of the Instrument




Development of an Alternative Conceptualization   

The Redistribution System of Recreation Resources

The Public Park and Recreation Organization

The Interaction with its Environment

The Motivation of Park and Recreation Professionals

The Concept of Administered Marketing


Conclusions and Recommendations    

Uniqueness of Administered Marketing

Directions for Future Research

Concluding Remarks




About Author

Dr. Novatorov received Master degree in “International leisure studies” from Christelijke Hogeschool Noord-Nederland, World Leisure Center of Excellence Program (1995). In 1999 he graduated with Ph.D. degree in Recreation, parks and tourism studies from Texas A&M University. Trained at Harvard Business School (2007) and the University of California (Berkeley) in 2008. Taught at Graduate school of management Saint-Petersburg state university GSOM, and Saint-Petersburg university of the humanities and social sciences, Russia. Author of 3 monographies and 86 articles on recreation and nonprofit marketing topics. Invited speaker at marketing and management conferences in USA, Canada, The Netherlands, and Poland. Member of editorial board of the journal “Маркетингуслуг” (Services marketing) Russia. Now- professor of marketing with department of management of National Research University “The Higher School of Economics” NRU HSE, Russia.



Date of Publication

July 15, 2018

File Size: 2461 KB
Length: x + 153 pages

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Other KSP Books