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To be published in 2018

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Evidence-based Unified Growth Theory

Economic growth and the growth of human population in the past 2,000,000 years are closely examined.Earlier explanations offered by the Unified Growth Theoryare scientifically unacceptable because (1) data used during the formulation of this theory were never mathematically analysed, (2) data were systematically distorted to support preconceived ideas and (3) earlier contradicting evidence was ignored.Precisely the same data, which in their distorted way were used to support of the Unified Growth Theory, are in its clear contradiction. Past socio-economic conditions,described in this theory, have no bearing on the explanation of growth trajectories. Data used in support of the Demographic Transition Theory were also never mathematically analysed and the obviously contradicting data were systematically ignored. This theory is also contradicted by data, even by the same data, which were used in its support. Growth of human population and economic growth in the past 2,000,000 years was steadily increasing by following exceptionally stable hyperbolic trajectories. Regional growth and even growth in individual countries were also preferably hyperbolic. In order to understand the past dynamics of growth it is essential to understand hyperbolic growth. The mechanism of hyperbolic growth of human population and of economic growth is now explained.

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Analysis of War on Terror Intensification Years in Pakistan (2007-2009)

Current collapse of Pakistan’s economic growth rates challenge the economic prosperity achieved during 2003-2006 period. In Pakistan’s case, it was rather clear. With intensification of WOT post 2006, Pakistan is currently witnessing yet more challenging economic circumstances. Though, the exogenous factors which relate to current economic situation are generally associated with rise in oil prices, energy crises, global financial crises and commodity price hike, there is need also to include factors like WOT into the paradigm. Armed conflict within a country also affects the economic potential of the country. It has been nearly a decade now that Pakistan had been participating in the WOT as a front line ally. The conflict has deepened the structural problems within different sectors of Pakistan’s economy.

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Agrarian and Rural Revitalisation Issues in China and Bulgaria

Around the globe, revitalization of agrarian and rural sector is one of the most topical issues for farmers, agrarian and rural communities, interest groups, researchers, investors, policymakers, and the public at large. In China and Bulgaria there are numerous publications on individual issues of agrarian and rural revitalization and sustainable development. Despite enormous progress in the theory and practice in that important new area, there are few comprehensive studies on the entire spectrum of agrarian and rural revitalization issuesin these two countries, and on their interactions with public policies, private and collective strategies and forms, market and technological development, social and communities’ dynamics, etc. What is more, there are no join and comparative studies on Chinese and Bulgarian experiences, despite quite similar historical development, fundamental transformation and modernization in the last several decades, and alike socio-economic and environmental challenges at current stage of development. This book is the result of an on-going research cooperation of the teams from the leading academic institutions in China and Bulgaria such as Shanghai Jiao Tong University in Shanghai, Communication University of China in Beijing, Institute of Agricultural Economics in Sofia, Agrarian University in Plovdiv, and University of National and World Economy in Sofia.

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Agricultural Innovations in Turkey

The adoption of agricultural innovations is crucial for economic growth as well as economic development. However, in order to help leverage the adoption and diffusion of innovative practices, it is important to understand the process of agricultural innovation and its determinants. Using data derived from interviews, published materials, and observations, this study identifies the key factors that determine agricultural innovations in Turkey. Based on these insights, the paper identifies the characteristics of innovative farmers and suggests policy strategies to encourage agricultural innovations. The analysis shows that agricultural innovations are taking place in Turkey and various public and private stakeholders contribute to the development and adoption of innovation in agriculture. Agricultural enterprises and cooperatives, clusters of innovation, non-governmental organizations, research institutes, government, and international institutions play an important part in the collaborative effort to create and disseminate innovation. In this context, the right institutional incentives, good governance, and an enabling infrastructure are crucial for the facilitation of innovation. The diffusion of innovations through extension services and experts promotes the active participation of farmers and may also have a positive impact on agricultural trade through increasing global competitiveness. Innovative agricultural products not only generate increasing returns for the existing demand for these products, but can increase competitiveness internationally. Since agriculture is mostly associated with a low-margin commodities business with decreasing returns, the potential of innovation in agriculture in making the rural sector more competitive and at the same time more sustainable has been underestimated.

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The Solution is Full Reserve / 100% Reserve Banking

Section 1 of this work argues the case for full reserve banking. Section 2 explains the flaws in a large number of arguments put AGAINST full reserve, and section 3 explains the flaws in a few arguments put IN FAVOUR of full reserve. This book is a slightly updated version of an online paper with the same title. The main changes / improvements are to section 1.4.

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Employing Transgender in Organization: Workplace Discrimination Challenges

The book explores the challenges an organization face when transgender persons are employed. One of the challenges is workplace discrimination issue against the transgender employees. Further, the role of transformational leadership has been examined in dealing with workplace discrimination issues. The study is based on qualitative analysis where in the validity and credibility of the study is ensured using data triangulation i.e. data is collected through unstructured interviews, participant observation and documents & pictures. Also, source triangulation i.e. different categories of respondents included 6 transgender employees, 6 other employees who works closely with transgender employees, 3 HR personnel, and the Executive Director Akhuwat. The study supports the role of transformational leadership in handling workplace discrimination. The values & principles, like respect and brotherhood are the core factors affecting the workplace discrimination against transgender employees. Especially, in absence of formalized HR policies and regulations, the values & principles plays a pivotal role. Such values of brotherhood and respect encourages the employees to hold a non-discriminatory organizational culture. Data shows the transgender employees are more hardworking, motivated, loyal and satisfied for merely being respected and recognized by the organization. This study of transgender employment experiences and the role of transformational leadership opens new lines of inquiry for understanding gender inequalities at work, and it builds on scholarship that combines political, social and economic approaches with transgender studies.

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Pakistan’s Trade Competitiveness & Complementarities in South Asia

Over the past decade Pakistan remained involved in two major trade agreements with in the South Asia (Pakistan & Sri-Lanka FTA and SAFTA). It is meaningful from an operational and policy perspective to evaluate Pakistan’s trade performance in South Asia against its objectives of greater trade integration and suggest policy interventions to improve its effectiveness. In order to achieve this objective, current study evaluates the Pakistan’s overall and chapter-wise trade performance with SAARC major SAARC economies for the last seven years (2003-09). This study has been disaggregated into two parts: In the first part of the study, an assessment of trade performance of SAARC members is carried out with respect to the rest of the world. Pakistan’s trade performance vis-à-vis other SAARC members is the focus of this part. In the second part Pakistan’s trade performance in South Asia has been analyzed and policy interventions have been suggested to improve its effectiveness. Certain trade indicators like Trade Complementarity Index (TCI), Trade Specialization Index (TSI), Grubel Lloyd Index (GLI), Revealed Comparative Analysis (RCA), Bilateral Revealed Comparative Analysis BRCAs and Revealed Market Access (RMA) have been employed to achieve the above objectives.

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Economic Impacts of the 2010 Floods in North Sindh: A Hicksian Compensating Variation Approach

Present study has applied Hicksian Compensating Variation approach for empirical estimation of the welfare loss in the households of the four selected districts of North Sindh (Qamber Shahdadkot, Kashmore-Kandhkot, Jacobabad and Shikarpur) that were severely affected during flood 2010. The income and substitution effects were estimated from Marshallian demand curves. Slutsky equation is applied to isolate the income effect from the total effect to estimate the Hicksian demand equations. The total intervention estimated to be required was approximately PKR 61.16 billion in the four selected districts however the total intervention provided in the form of rescue, relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction was equal to PKR 47.2 billion. A short fall of approximately PKR 15 billion was observed. The Hicksian Compensation required estimated per household per month is to the tune of PKR 11703 per month.