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Socio-Economic Issues in Cameroon Vol.1

By Benjamin Yamb (Editor)

University of Douala, Cameroon

Synopsis

(Ch.1) In a situation of bank credit rationing, SMEs have the most recourse to short-term financing. In order of preference, these include tontines, microfinance institutions, business-to-business loans, carers, friends’ helpers, current associate competitions, leasing institutions, associations, and associations, increase in capital. This order corresponds almost to the most sought after alternative financing methods. There is therefore a financial equilibrium problem when it comes to meeting the long-term and medium-term needs of SMEs. To respond to this concern, we have proposed alternative financing methods to SMEs, specifying their order of preference, which SMEs can use in rationing bank credit. Other proposals for banks and public authorities have also been made to improve bank financing for SMEs.

(Ch.2) Cocoa activity in Meme Division for decades has greatly contributed in the organisation of rural population as well as landscape in the area. This is remarkable in the distribution patterns of local labour forces on cocoa farms after post colonial era. In similar way it has also influence the social, economic and political characteristics of local development in Meme Division since independence. Despite many opportunities from the activity the sector remains questionable. The chapter examines and analyses the contribution of cocoa production to local development in Meme Division as well as the nature of labour practices in the sector. A random sampling technique of one hundred and fifty (150) cocoa producing households in thirty villages was adopted. The issues raised by the respondents was statistically analysed after investigation. Results show that cocoa production is one of the sources of national and households’ income. It has also accounted for the development of solidarity farm working groups. From which four labour patterns are created: family, hired, force, and voluntary labours. These solidarity groups are mostly youth representing 60% of labour force as against 40% for adults’ workers on cocoa activities. Conclusion shows that Meme Division is the best sample to evaluate the role of cocoa activity in the organisation of local population, labour distribution pattern on cocoa sector as well as local development.

(Ch.3) The author attempts to use the Mookherjee and P’ng model to analyse corruption as an important explanatory variable of the sustainable management crisis of the forest in Cameroon. The analysis of fieldwork date indicates that the government of Cameroon does not have incisive and dissuasive instruments advocated in the latter model to eradicate corruption. The author therefore encourages the government to utilise these instruments to attempt to reduce the above crisis.

(Ch.4) This chapter describes, from an observation of five cases of local markets in Africa, how informal organizations are being formed and perpetuated. It appears that the stability and sustainability of a given informal organization are determined by some factors, apart from profitability or the comfort of a professional situation. The implementation process and the informal coordination guarantee the stabilizing dynamics in how these markets operate.

(Ch.5) This chapter attempts to assess the extent of the phenomenon, then to discuss the relevant explanatory variables, and finally to examine the efforts of the fight against corruption. A tentative conclusion is that the failure of the fight against the phenomenon is explained by the fact that the variables that best explain the phenomenon in the implementation of control strategies are not taken into account. In particular, the analysis indicates that an adapted control policy should be based on salary increases and the strengthening of control and sanction policies.

(Ch.6) The microfinance, a financial inclusion factor does not seem to effectively play its role of a bank for the poor in Cameroon. The success story of the Grameen Bank’s microfinance model leads to draw some lessons for the Cameroonian financial system. From this model of successful microfinance conceived by Mohammad Yunusin Bangladesh in the 1970’s, we have conducted a comparative study of the practice of microfinance within the Grameen Bank context and Cameroon. From it, there are some principal lessons which show how micro credit supply to the poor can be improved in Cameroon.

(Ch.7) Work in a simplistic way is considered as an activity allowing an individual to receive a remuneration that can allow the latter to support oneself. However, during the European occupation in Kamerun, a distinction can be made between employees who worked in plantations of cash crops which were poorly remunerated. And administrative employees, beside them, there were also mission’s non-employees that worked for nothing according to the will of God. This was therefore valid wherever Europeans and Christianity were passing. Today, International Labour Organization has redefined working conditions on a redevelopment that will enable people to live on the fruits of their labour, even if the notion of surplus value persists.

Contents

Preface

 

Chapter I

Banking credit rationing and alternative financing methods for SMEs in Cameroon

Noé NDJECK & Benjamin YAMB

Introduction

Literature review

Methodological aspects and descriptive statistics

Determining the sample size; Characteristics of the sample; Econometric model and study variables.

Presentation of findings

Discussion

An alternative financing structure for SMEs; Proposals for improving bank financing for SMEs.

Conclusion

References

 

Chapter II

Labour distribution patterns on cocoa farms and economic development in Meme Division South West Region of Cameroon

Johnson MODIKA

Introduction

Geographical and methods framework

Geographical location; Methods; Definition of terms and conceptual framework.

Results and discussion

Labour practices on cocoa activities across Meme Division; Employment ratio according to cocoa activities; Contribution of cocoa production to socio-economic development.

Conclusion

References

 

Chapter III

Corruption and the crisis of a sustainable management of the forest in Cameroon: An empirical investigation of the  Mookherjee and P’ng model

Simone Maxime BIKOUE

Introduction

The model

Staging the actors; How bribery occurs.

The empirical analysis

The forest management system in Cameroon; The results of the investigation.

Conclusion

Notes

References

 

Chapter IV

Local markets in Africa: Implementation process, organization, social dynamics and microenterprise potential in a poverty context: Case study of Cameroon

Pierre Emmanuel NDEBI & Marcel DAMA DIE

Introduction

The local market in Africa: Towards a given definition

Implementation’s foundations and local markets’ sustainability in Africa: The case study approach

Local markets: From apparent disorder to a stable organized reality

Space organization; The sociological organization or local markets’ dynamic’s base.

Discussion and conclusion

References

 

Chapter V

 Corruption in Cameroon: How to measure the phenomenon, the explanatory variables, and the fight against corruption

Oscar BAYEMI, Bakiti BA MBOG & Ebo’oh Ntjen DESIRE

Introduction

Limits of global and sectoral measures of corruption in Cameroon

Global indicators; Sectoral indicators.

The question of the explanatory factors of the various global and sectoral rankings of corruption

Reducing corruption

Conclusion

References

  

Chapter VI

Microfinance: Can the Grameen Bank Model be transferable to Cameroon?

Oscar ASSOUMOU MENYE, Jean Louis EKOMANE,

Robert TUEBOLA, & Innocent AGHA

Introduction

The practice of microfinance in Cameroon: Is there hope for the poor?

Acute asymmetric information surrounding the microfinance institution; Opportunist behaviors and weaknesses of microfinance institutions; The counter-productive practices of MFI’s in Cameroon; The tendency of inexorable financial eviction of the poor.

Methodology of analysis

Reminder about the main problem; The justification of the qualitative step; Putting in place of this step.

The Gramen bank experience: What lessons for Cameroon?

The Grameen bank: a model to imitate?; The keys of success of the Grameen bank; Lessons to learn by Cameroon and the CEMAC Zone; Microfinance and the perspective of economic emergence in Cameroon.

Conclusion

References

 

Chapter VII

Work under European domination in Cameroon: From protectorate to independence

Paul MPake NYEKE

Introduction

The salary conditions of Cameroonians since the arrival of Europeans in plantations and in administration

In agricultural plantations; In administration and others.

Salary conditions in religious congregations: The case of the Catholic Church

Divine reward; The school kids; The sixa (sisters); The workers.

Consequences of labour distribution and disparities under European administration

Conclusion

References

About Editor(s)

Benjamin Yamb is professor of economics and statistics at the Advanced School of Economics and Commerce at the University of Douala in Cameroon. He was Head of International Trade and Management Department for almost 10 years (2003-2013) where he set up the professional master degree in International Trade and Supply Chain Management. He holds a Master degree in Economics (University of Montreal, Quebec Canada), a master degree in Statistics (The American University Washington DC) and a doctorate in economics (University of Paris 1 pantheon Sorbonne). He is the author of several publications in local and international journals. He has served as a consultant in many international organizations, such as the European Union where he set up a system for collecting, processing and analyzing commercial data in Chad. His areas of interest are financial macroeconomics including exchange rates, governance models in this case in developing countries and discrete choice statistical models.

ISBN

978-605-2132-47-0

Date of Publication

December 15, 2019

File Size: 3442 KB
Length: xvi + 158 pages

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