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Socio-Economic Issues in Cameroon Vol.2

By Benjamin Yamb (Editor)

University of Douala, Cameroon

Synopsis

(Ch.1) This chapter highlights the various corrupt practices between applicants and educational staff during examinations / competitive exams in order to succeed in the Cameroon educational system. An odds ratios Analysis from the supply side revealed that in most of the regions studied, the magnitude of the payment of bribes to school leaders for success (Director / Principal) as compared to that of their employees is about 2.62 times higher. In the same vein, our estimates show that in about 70.8% of cases, the leaders of these institutions are the most needed in recommending candidates for their success in various exams. We highlighted from the demand side the characteristics of examinees through a Bernoulli distribution; it appears that the non-poor, women, the youngest and workers are the categories of people who are most vulnerable to corrupt practices.

Ch.2) This chapter is a continuation of our previous works on the determinants of multiple jobs of lecturers in Cameroonian State universities. It lays particular emphasis on human resource management used in these universities. The methodology makes use of the logit analysis on survey data. The results obtained show that contrary to the theoretical and empirical literature, time constraint in the main job does not appear to be an important explanatory factor for the multiple jobs phenomenon. However, gender, the universities’ location, salary earned from secondary jobs and the holding of an administrative position in a university play a major role in explaining the phenomenon. This paper thus presents a certain interest linked to the specificity of these jobs (lack of monitoring, opportunism in behaviors, social pressures related to them) on the one hand, and the coaching of the human resource used on the other. Governmental incentive measures are proposed to limit this dual employment phenomenon which tends to deteriorate the quality of lectures provided.

(Ch.3) This chapter highlights initiatives taking in the act of corruption between applicants and schools authorities in the Cameroon educational system during students’ registration. An odds ratios analysis for the entire country and by region showed that in about 66.67% of cases in this educational system, the initiative for corruption comes from the Heads of institutions, and it is led by some motives such as the limited seats,  the  school  facilities,  the  poor  quality  of  applications  and  the  compulsory requirement to buy school items. However, despite the fact that the magnitude of the initiative for the corrupt action by the teaching staff is more important than that of applicants in all regions, we nevertheless highlighted their characteristics through a Poisson regression. In particular the empirical analysis revealed that urban and rich people take more initiative than rural and poor people as far as corrupt actions are concerned.

(Ch.4) This study seeks to identify the determinants of moonlighting among lecturers of Cameroonian state universities. To do this, we apply a log-linear model to data from a random sample survey of lecturers from Cameroonian state universities. The results show that in addition to the classical determinants of moonlighting (hours of work in the main job, pay in the primary job, pay in the secondary job) gender and the localization of the university also play major roles. Descriptive statistics also show that moonlighting lowers the quality of lectures. Incentives from the government are therefore proposed as a means of reducing the phenomenon of moonlighting in Cameroonian state universities.

(Ch.5) Using a method of funding is not accidental. It is based on factors of choosing a financing method. However, these factors do not all exert the same influence to lead to a type of financing, especially in the context of Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) in a situation of bank credit rationing like those of Cameroon. Thus, the results obtained from a sample of452SMEs in Douala Cameroon, through a logistic regression model, revealed that factors such as the cost of financing, the power dilution and the financial flexibility are at least three times more likely to guide the SMEs to short-term financing than to the long and medium-term ones.

Contents

Preface

 

Chapter I

The effects of corruption on public schools examinatiıns in Cameroon

Benjamin YAMB & Oscar BAYEMI

Introduction

Literature review

Exam practice and corruption in Cameroon

How exams are conducted; Corruption forms and evolution of modes of examinations conduct.

Methodology and modelisation fort he corrupt control

Discussion

Why do some managers take more initiatives than others as far as corrupt acts are concerned?; Characteristics of applicants who pay bribes to succeed; Bribe as unique channel for success? Discussion.

Conclusion

References

 

Chapter II

Multiple jobs holding and management of lecturers in Cameroonian state universities

Benjamin YAMB & Maxime BIKOUE

Introduction

Theoretical foundations and literature review

Definitions and theoretical foundations; Literature review.

Data and descriptive statistics

Sample characteristics and description of study variables; Dependent and independent variables; Some descriptive statistics.

Econometric estimation of the determinants of multiple job-holding: analysis of results and discussion

Econometric model; Analysis of results and discussion.

Management of lecturers in state universities

On the control of the behavior of lecturers; The implementation of efficiency wages or remuneration per hour of work; Problem of the mobilisation of human resources.

Conclusion and future research avenues

Appendix

References

 

Chapter III

Corruption and registration in public educational institutions: Who takes the initiative? An analysis of microeconomic data of the Cameroonian regions

Oscar BAYEMI & Benjamin YAMB

Introduction

Literature review

Registrations practice in the Cameroon educational system and the actors’ behavior

Registrations practice and recruitment modes; The actors’ behavior; Motives for the initiative taking for the corrupt act: A theoretical discussion.

Methodology and modelization of the taking of initiative for

Statistical estimates and empirical discussion

Why do some managers take more initiatives than others as far as corrupt acts are concerned? An odds ratio approach estimation; The taking of initiative by applicants.

Conclusion and recommendations

References

 

Chapter IV

The determinants of moonlighting among lecturers of state universities in Cameroon: An evidence from a log-linear model

Benjamin YAMB & Maxime BIKOUE

Introduction

Literature review

Methodology and theoretical justification of the model

Presentation of results and discussion

Characteristics of the sample and description of study variables; Some descriptive statistics; Presentation and empirical justification of the retained models: Analysis of variance tables; Log-linear model and discussion.

Conclusion

References

 

Chapter V

The determinants of the choice of alternative financing methods of SMEs in bank credit rationing: Evidence from Cameroon

Benjamin YAMB & Noé NDJECK

Introduction

Literature review

Methodological aspects and descriptive statistics

Determining the sample’s size; Characteristics of the sample (125); The econometric model and the study variables.

Presentation of results and discussion

Conclusion

Appendix

References

About Author(s)

Benjamin Yamb is professor of economics and statistics at the Advanced School of Economics and Commerce at the University of Douala in Cameroon. He was Head of International Trade and Management Department for almost 10 years (2003-2013) where he set up the professional master degree in International Trade and Supply Chain Management. He holds a Master degree in Economics (University of Montreal, Quebec Canada), a master degree in Statistics (The American University Washington DC) and a doctorate in economics (University of Paris 1 pantheon Sorbonne). He is the author of several publications in local and international journals. He has served as a consultant in many international organizations, such as the European Union where he set up a system for collecting, processing and analyzing commercial data in Chad. His areas of interest are financial macroeconomics including exchange rates, governance models in this case in developing countries and discrete choice statistical models.

ISBN

978-605-7736-69-7

Date of Publication

December 15, 2019

File Size: 4079 KB
Length: xiv + 141 pages

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