By Oded Kafri


In this collection of papers, it shown that the “order”which is generated around us by evolution and the results of our doing can be explained by the propensity of entropy to increase; namely, by the second law of thermodynamics. Entropy is conceived by many as a disorder, however, that is true only for spares systems. In a dense system, entropy is information thatis characterized by a long tail distribution. In order to apply the second law to sociology and economy, we have to define a sociological net. With analogy to the internet, in which, in principle, every site can receive and broadcast information to any other site we can describe economic network as a group of bank accounts that each one of them canreceive or pay money to any other account. The distribution of links between the sites is similar to that of money in the bank accounts. This long tail distribution,whichis obtained by maximizing the entropy of the net, is called Planck-Benford distribution. It is also shown that Planck-Benford distribution can predict polls distribution;Gini inequality Index in the OECD countries;the percentage of the relative poverty; the salaries of the CEO’s relative to the average salaries and the number of employees. Moreover, the Planck-Benford income distribution, being an equilibrium distribution (Max Entropy),can provide a standard tool for estimatingthe stability of the economy of a given country namely closer the income distribution of a country to Planck Benford distribution closer the economy to equilibrium.



  1. Entropy Principle in Direct Derivation of Benford’s Law
  2. The Second Law and Informatics
  3. Informatics Carnot Machine in an Optical Fiber
  4. The Second Law as a Cause of the Evolution
  5. Information Theoretic Approach to Social Networks
  6. Information Theory and Thermodynamics
  7. Economic Inequality as a Statistical Outcome
  8. A Comment on Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics
  9. Sociological Inequality and the Second Law
  10. The Distributions in Nature and Entropy Principle


About Author

Dr. Kafri was a senior scientist and a group leader at the Nuclear Research Center-Negev in Israel. He has published about 150 scientific papers, among them two pioneering papers on “Visual Cryptography” and on “Moire deflectometry” and holds numerous patents. Dr. Kafri has received several international awards, among them the CeBit Highlights award in 1994. Dr. Kafri founded three high tech companies and wrote three books: The Physics of Moiré Metrology, Entropy – God’s Dice Game, and Money: Physics and Distributive Justice” which is a description of the economy as physical phenomenon.



Date of Publication

July 15, 2018

File Size: 2218 KB
Length: x + 98 pages

Other KSP Books

Other KSP Books